Solid-state battery industry asymptotic lithium battery rivals appear

- Mar 09, 2017-

According to foreign media reports, BMW is developing a more advanced lithium-ion battery, this battery will use solid electrolyte instead of the existing electrolyte, lighter, more secure, higher density, plans to achieve mass production in 2026.

See this news, can not help but think of a news in August 2016, the British Dyson company ho throw 1.4 billion new battery factory, to develop new solid-state lithium battery. The company a year ago, the company to 90 million US dollars acquisition of the US solid-state battery company Sakti3, the company founder James Dyson had proposed to invest nearly $ 1 billion to mass production of solid-state batteries.

The news once published, the outside world generally believe that this move on the Dyson and his name in the company is a gamble, caused no small controversy. Analysts agreed that the next decade can not see the wide range of solid-state battery hope, when Tesla CEO Elon Maaske also publicly expressed that the prospects are not optimistic about the solid-state battery, he believes that solid-state battery production costs difficult to decline to the current Lithium battery production costs, and thus Tesla focus on reducing the cost of existing lithium-ion battery production research and development, they have invested 50 billion US dollars to build large lithium-ion battery factory, said to allow lithium battery production costs Down 30%.

Today, BMW has also started from the strategic level of solid-state battery R & D and production, as a well-known world of car manufacturers, BMW has always been regarded as a high-end automobile manufacturing industry to focus on vehicle technology research and development and innovation known. In the field of power batteries, BMW has been a positive advocate and participants, as early as 2012, BMW began to get involved in hydrogen fuel cell, and Toyota co-developed fuel cell system. In 2015, BMW and the company jointly launched with the addition of two kinds of technology to add the hydrogen refueling station. In addition to meeting the industry standard, the hydrogen refueling station has also added a high-pressure low-temperature composite hydrogen fuel storage technology that can increase the hydrogen fuel storage capacity by 50% and support the vehicle to achieve more than 500 km of mileage. BMW is now aimed at the field of solid-state batteries, through their own involved in solid-state battery research and development, and constantly accumulate and improve the technical reserves to achieve the occupation of the future market, once again to show their ancestors step forward development vision and strategy.

We know that the current field of new energy to the application of liquid lithium-ion battery-based, liquid lithium-ion battery which contains liquid electrolyte, lithium ions through the electrolyte back and forth between the positive and negative to achieve power supply. The solid-state lithium-ion battery inside there is no liquid electrolyte, replaced by polymer solid electrolyte (or coated on the membrane surface), lithium ion migration mainly by solid-state diffusion.

The difference between solid-state batteries and liquid batteries is mainly reflected in the form of electrolyte, the current liquid lithium-ion battery electrolyte mainly exists in the following aspects:

1, weight: the weight of a cell, the electrolyte may account for about 20-30%. (If you do not use liquid electrolyte, the battery weight will be much lower, the corresponding energy density of the battery will increase).

2, the safety: extremely liquid electrolyte flammable, the traditional lithium-ion battery safety is poor with the electrolyte is a great relationship.

3, stability: electrolyte in the high voltage instability, easy to oxidize into gas, resulting in deterioration of the battery or even dangerous.

4, environmental protection: electrolyte composition is lithium hexafluorophosphate and some esters of organic compounds, a small amount of other additives, with a certain degree of corrosion and environmental poisoning.

In contrast, all-solid-state lithium-ion battery energy density will be higher, the security will be greatly improved, can withstand higher voltage, resistance to overcharge performance will be improved, and the basic no environmental poisoning, represents the future lithium battery The direction of development.

However, it should also be noted that all solid-state lithium-ion battery is not perfect, one of its biggest drawback is the high rate discharge performance is very poor, because the lithium-ion solid diffusion rate than in the solution much slower, so it can only be applied In a small current device, and in the fast charge function to achieve it is more difficult. Another drawback is that the manufacturing technology is complex and costly.

As a new type of lithium-ion battery with obvious advantages and disadvantages, the high safety and high energy density of all solid-state lithium-ion battery is the goal of the current lithium battery industry. Although there are obvious shortcomings, it does not hinder its future industry prospect.

For the problem of fast filling defects, we do not have to be too brooding, because the development and progress of science and technology is always inadvertently brought us exciting and surprise. According to a study published in the journal Energy and Environmental Science, a team led by John Goodenough, a 94-year-old professor of mechanical engineering and materials science at the University of Texas at Austin, invented a fast-charge, low-cost, Solid-state batteries, the professor said, they use solid glass electrolytes instead of liquid electrolytes, found to solve many of the problems inherent in today's batteries. This battery can work at minus 20 degrees Celsius extreme low temperature, energy density is now at least three times the lithium-ion battery, charge and discharge more than 1200 times.