Graphene, a carbonaceous two-dimensional material with carbon atoms compacted into a single-layer two-dimensional honeycomb lattice structure, with its ultra-high comparative area [monolithic graphene specific surface area theory is calculated as 2 630 m2 / g) Excellent electron mobility (20 000 cm2 / (Vs)], high thermal conductivity (thermal conductivity up to 5 300 W / mK), superior mechanical properties and good biocompatibility, became academia and industry Research and development of hot spots, it can be applied to theoretical physics experimental platform, nanoelectronic devices, superconducting materials, energy storage and production capacity devices, microfilters and sensors and biomedical and other fields.
At present, the United States, Europe, South Korea and other manufacturing power of graphene application research are carried out in full swing; China's graphene industry is the rapid development of local government support and incubation, universities and research institutes under the technical support Such as Tianjin Pulan Nano Technology Co., Ltd., Nanjing Xianfeng Nano Materials Technology Co., Ltd., Changzhou two-dimensional carbon Technology Co., Ltd., Changzhou Sixth Element Materials Technology Co., Ltd. and a number of specialized in graphene material production and component technology High-Tech Companies. Not only that, in order to integrate the coordination of industrial resources, promote low-cost graphene and equipment, technological progress and industrialization and founder of the "China Graphite Industry Technology Innovation Strategic Alliance", but also in the establishment of graphene upstream and downstream, production and research information, intellectual property And other resources to share, to establish channels of communication with the government and personnel training, international cooperation platform to promote the establishment of standards, evaluation, quality testing system to enhance the overall competitiveness of low-cost graphene, is doing exploratory efforts and try The
It is imperative to plan the development of graphene and its related technology and lead the technology development of graphene (including related two-dimensional crystal materials) and hybrid system products in the background of the thriving industrialization of graphene.
First, graphene and its related materials
The birth of groundbreaking of graphene and related materials (GRM) will undoubtedly make more human targets possible, and it will overcome the bottlenecks in the development of materials, components and systems in the value chain. The special performance of GRM will Become the future application of the key technologies, these technologies may still not yet be achieved, but the research and application of these technologies will bring new opportunities for human development.
The key technologies for GRM development include the use of materials technology to identify and evaluate new two-dimensional materials to assess the prospects for the application of these new materials; the reliability of GRM materials, according to the plan for the development of graphene for the development of graphene in Europe. , Repeatability, sustainability, safety, and macro synthesis methods to meet the specific needs of different application areas. Component technology for the identification and evaluation of new elements that are functionalized by GRM materials; identification and evaluation of component technology using GRM materials; and electronic component technology for the study of high frequency electronics, optoelectronics, spin electronics and sensor technology. System integration for the study of component structures based on GRM materials and the development of new functions to develop new systems of application systems; the development of GRM integrated in the existing technology platform for new concepts; research nanocomposites, flexible electronics and energy Application integration method.
Through the GRM knowledge base development and the accumulation of new device technology route summary, contribute to human planning and innovation GRM related technology development, the ultimate goal is to GRM integrated into the future application system. In the field of information and communication technology, you can focus on new technologies that can bring new applications, such as the Morph concept, to explore the GRM's electrical, optical and mechanical properties, in order to achieve personal communication equipment, new breakthroughs.
In the field of material exchange, more attention to energy production and storage of key technologies, as well as new functional lightweight composite materials in this area of application. GRM materials and technology in this area of technology, will likely be integrated into the new aircraft, buses, electric vehicles and other transportation systems. The use of GRM visualization technology Smart-ForVision concept of electric vehicles as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 combines the visualization technology Smart-ForVision concept of electric vehicles
In the field of health and energy, through the research and exploration of the special electrical and optical properties of GRM materials, there will be a clear understanding of the direction of new information processing and communication systems in academia and industry. In view of the currently formed GRM materials and technology, the European flagship program has planned 11 technical areas for GRM development, including basic research, health and environment, preparation, electrical devices, spin electronics, optics and optoelectronics, sensors, flexible electronics Learning, energy storage and production, composite materials, biomedical applications. The next 10 to 20 years, more than 11 areas, will appear graphened figure, is expected to 2030, GRM related materials and technologies will be able to directly convert into consumer goods, walk around the consumer, as shown in Figure 2 As shown. The following will be based on GRM materials and technology research and patent output 2, the current development of graphene materials and technology for a panoramic analysis. Second, GRM materials and technology research output
By studying the development of GRM technology, it is easy to see that GRM materials and technology research is a typical case of "translation" nanotechnology. In other words, graphene was found in the laboratory, and soon transferred to the practical application of the study. Since 2007, the scientific papers and patent activities on graphene have grown rapidly at the same time in the world, that is, the emergence of graphene in a large number of fields of scientific research and application has attracted people's attention. This fact just proves that GRM technology is a translational nanotechnology.
The research and development in the field of biomedicine is the most intimate direction of combining basic research with clinical practice. It is closely related to the concept of transfer technology and can be applied to a wider range of fields. A typical case is the emergence of giant magnetoresistance, just a few years time, the relevant research from the academic community to become the dominant direction of information storage application technology. In contrast, GRM technology has a far-reaching impact: GRM components integrated into the field of Si-based electronics industry, or can gradually replace the application of Si, not only can provide higher performance, but also may find More important with the new application areas.
Not only that, carbon materials have been the driving force of a variety of technical solutions: the 19th century, through the burning of coal, human access to energy, to promote the first industrial revolution process; the 20th century, carbon-based plastic revolution To promote the development of manufacturing; the 21st century, graphite structure of carbon material will become the third key to the technological revolution.
As shown in Figure 3, scientific papers related to graphene have been increasing year by year since 2000, and this growth has no tendency to slow down. In the field of graphene, the heat is not reduced. There are many reasons: First, graphene is a material with special properties. Whether it is separated or combined, these properties can be applied to many fields. With the passage of time and the progress of graphene technology, people can always find its new capabilities and new uses. Second, the development of graphene technology is based on the most abundant elements of the earth, which makes GRM technology a stable, sustainable and economical technology. Third, graphene is a two-dimensional material, it is not only applicable to the field of information and communication production, but also for the traditional Si material components of the research and development.
Figure 3 graphene-related scientific papers published
Graphene found in Europe, and GRM technology on the study has been all over the world, as shown in Figure 4. In 2013, the European region published on the GRM technology, the largest number of scientific papers, stand to the overall 34%; followed by the Asian region, mainly from the East Asian countries, the contribution of three countries in North America also attach great importance to GRM related technology Research, published scientific papers accounted for the overall 24%.
Combined with the above discussion, GRM technology research, can be a new, strong and flexible, sustainable, economically viable technology platform. Therefore, the research of graphene technology has become the most important frontier in the field of materials science. Nevertheless, due to the unique structure of graphene, many of its applications may not be understood, and the corresponding analytical method is highly complex. Quote from the Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek's view: Graphene is the only possible system platform for transforming quantum field theory into patented innovation. Therefore, GRM materials and technology based and forward-looking research, is still the next few years people focus on the field. The publication of scientific papers in this field will continue to maintain rapid growth. Third, GRM material and technology patent panorama analysis
Patent as an important part of intellectual property rights, is an important form of corporate R & D results, but also the world's most important scientific and technological information platform. Through the panorama analysis of global patents on GRM materials and technologies, it is possible to understand the current status of GRM technology and to obtain information on future technological trends. It is an important means to study GRM technology, strategy and intelligence.
Since 2007, activities related to graphene-related areas have begun to accelerate, as shown in Figure 5. This is mainly driven by patent applications in major areas of Korea and the major US companies and research institutions in related fields. Not only that, from China's high level of graphene patent activities, also made an important contribution. Some critics argue that European graphene patents fall behind other regions. But this is not the case, an intellectual property analysis shows that the European patent strategy of graphene has an important foothold, and can guarantee the future of Europe's value opportunities. With the development of lattice potential technology continues to improve, GRM patent activities gradually mature, the redistribution of the field of technology will inevitably occur, Europe will also be patent-based commercial graphene research profit.
Figure 5 graphene patent application
Overall, graphene technology patent activity is growing rapidly and has converged into the relevant segments of the semiconductor and biotech industries, which maintain a high level of patent activity. In these segments, the patent strategy for business activities usually includes "profit maximization" and "profit optimization" 2 strategies, and sub-sectors also experienced the troubles of the patent jungle, and sometimes need to bypass the patent has been granted. Policies, regulations, and business strategies limit the practice of patents in development. In this environment, accurate technical panorama analysis can provide important information for policy makers, investors and individual industry participants to provide a basis for sound policy, business strategy and commercialization research programs.
The top graphene patent owners (patent clients) and their patent application analysis show a wide range of related aspects of graphene in different industrial directions, such as automotive, computer and chemical raw materials. In these industrial areas, the application of patents in the time and industry between the a wide range of changeability, thereby increasing the strategic planning of the guiding challenges, people need more accurate graphene intellectual property map.
Knowing and understanding the rapid growth of graphene technology panorama, for those looking for future value protection is very important. The patent may be an important part of the realization of the future commercial interests of graphene, because the patent is an important component of intellectual property in the business model, is an important practice of technological development, is an important part of the strategic deployment of enterprise R & D.
The next analysis and discussion of intellectual property rights highlighted the differences between graphene-related scientific products represented by scientific and technological publications, as well as graphene-related patent applications related to technology development, and provided a large scale, Leadership's focus activities (well-known, contributing scientific output) and additional data from industry leaders (significant contributors to patent applications).
Four, graphene intellectual property panorama analysis
The patent activity related to graphene has been accelerated since 2007 and is similar to its performance in the field of scientific papers. This phenomenon also demonstrates the accelerated development of graphene technology research and exploration in the world. Interestingly, the intellectual property activities associated with graphene began earlier in 2004, and the process of patent applications related to graphene production could be traced back to 1 896 (a patent for the synthesis of oxidized graphite) The
Prior to 2006, GRM related patents, mainly US research institutions to apply for and development, and after 2006, the relevant patent applications began to surge. After 2007, GRM-related patent applications are mainly led by research and development agencies from South Korea, they are Samsung Group and Samsung Group has linked to scientific research units, such as Sungkyunkwan University.
According to the application of different fields, graphene-related patents include a number of directions, such as characterization methods, polymer composites, transparent display devices, transistors, capacitors, solar cells, biosensors, conductive inks, windows, saturated adsorbents, Detectors, tennis racket and so on. In general, graphene-related patent applications focus on electronic components, the preparation of synthetic, composite materials and other fields. Among them, the most concentrated is the GRM material synthesis and the manufacture of electronic devices in two major areas, respectively, accounted for 28% of the total patent applications and 27%. As shown in Figure 6.
It is well known that the synthesis of graphene mainly involves chemical vapor deposition, stripping and so on; and graphene electronic devices are mainly concerned with equipment, transistors and computer chips. Although there may be a coincidence in each industry area, this is the result of interdisciplinary research, making technology conversion and breakthrough possible.
Figure 6 graphene patent application direction distribution
The extensive application of graphene is a treasure trove of vertical crossover technology. It can be applied in the fields of electronics industry, information and communication industry, energy industry, consumer goods industry, polymer composite industry, automobile industry, pharmaceutical industry, chemical industry Wait.
It is proved that the research of graphene is still in the initial stage, and there is still a lot of room for the development and utilization of GRM.