New energy vehicles refer to the use of unconventional vehicle fuels as a power source (or the use of conventional vehicle fuel, but the use of new vehicle power plant), integrated vehicle power control and drive the advanced technology, the formation of advanced technical principles, With new technology, new structure of the car. New energy vehicles include: hybrid vehicles (HEV), pure electric vehicles (BEV), fuel cell vehicles (FCEV), hydrogen engine cars and gas vehicles, alcohol and other vehicles.
1 hybrid vehicle
Hybrid power is those that use conventional fuels, coupled with motor / engine to improve low-speed power output and fuel consumption models. In accordance with the different types of fuel, the main can be divided into gasoline and diesel hybrid hybrid power two. At present the domestic market, hybrid vehicles are the mainstream of gasoline hybrid, and the international market, the development of diesel hybrid model is also very fast.
The advantages of hybrid vehicles are: 1, after the use of hybrid power required by the average to determine the maximum power of the internal combustion engine, at this time in the low fuel consumption, pollution, the best working conditions. When the load is low, the surplus power can generate electricity to the battery charge, because the internal combustion engine can continue to work, the battery can continue to be charged, so the trip and the same as ordinary cars. 2, because of the battery, you can easily recycle braking, downhill, the idle speed of energy. 3, in the bustling urban areas, can shut down the internal combustion engine, driven by the battery alone, to achieve "zero" emissions. 4, with the internal combustion engine can be very easy to solve the energy consumption of large air conditioning, heating, defrosting and other pure electric vehicles encountered problems. 5, you can use the existing gas station refueling, do not have to invest. 6, allows the battery to maintain a good working condition, does not occur overcharge, over discharge, to extend its service life and reduce costs.
Disadvantages: long distance high-speed basic can not fuel-efficient.
2 pure electric vehicles
Electric vehicle is the name suggests is mainly used in electric vehicles, most of the vehicles directly using the motor drive, some of the motor vehicles installed in the engine compartment, there are some directly to the wheel as the four motor rotor, the difficulty lies in power storage technology. Even if the power consumption converted to power plant emissions, in addition to sulfur and particles, the other pollutants are also significantly reduced, most of the power plant built away from the densely populated cities, the human injury than the human body is more harmful to human health, Less, and the plant is fixed, centralized emissions, remove all kinds of harmful emissions easier, but also has a related technology. Because electricity can be obtained from a variety of primary energy sources, such as coal, nuclear energy, water, wind, light, heat, etc., to lift people worried about the depletion of oil resources. Electric vehicles can also make full use of the evening when the power consumption of the low power surplus, so that power generation equipment can make full use of day and night, greatly improving its economic efficiency. Studies have shown that the same crude oil is roasted to the power plant, the charge into the battery, and then by the battery-powered car, the energy efficiency than refined into gasoline, and then by the gasoline engine-driven car, it is conducive to energy conservation And reduce carbon dioxide emissions, it is these advantages, so that electric vehicle research and application of the automotive industry has become a "hot spot." Some experts believe that, for electric vehicles, the biggest obstacle is the infrastructure and the price of the process of industrialization, compared with the hybrid, electric vehicles need more infrastructure facilities, and this is not a business can solve , The need for all enterprises together with the local government departments to build, will have a large-scale promotion opportunities.
Advantages: technology is relatively simple and mature, as long as there are places where power supply can be charged.
Disadvantages: the current storage battery unit weight of the energy is too small, but also because of the electric vehicle battery is more expensive, not the formation of economies of scale, so the purchase price is more expensive, the use of cost, some trial results more expensive than cars, some results are only cars 1/3, which depends on the life of the battery and the local oil and electricity prices.
3 fuel cell vehicles
Fuel cell vehicle refers to the hydrogen, methanol and other fuel, through the chemical reaction to produce electricity, rely on motor-driven car. The battery's energy is through the hydrogen and oxygen chemistry, rather than through combustion, directly into electrical energy or. Fuel cell chemical reaction process does not produce harmful products, so fuel cell vehicles are pollution-free cars, fuel cell energy conversion efficiency than the internal combustion engine 2 to 3 times higher, so from energy use and environmental protection, fuel cell vehicles An ideal vehicle.
Individual fuel cells must be combined into a fuel cell stack in order to obtain the necessary power to meet the requirements of vehicle use.
In recent years, fuel cell technology has made significant progress. World-renowned automakers such as DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Toyota and General Motors have announced plans to bring fuel-cell vehicles to market in the short-term. At present, the fuel cell car prototype is being tested to fuel cell-powered transport buses in several cities in North America are ongoing demonstration projects. There remain technical challenges in the development of fuel cell vehicles, such as the integration of fuel cell stacks, the increased commercialization of electric vehicle fuel processors and ancillary automotive manufacturers in the direction of integrating components and reducing component costs, and have Has made significant progress.
Compared with the traditional car, fuel cell vehicle has the following advantages:
1, zero or almost zero emissions.
2, to reduce oil pollution caused by oil leaks.
3, reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
4, to improve the fuel economy.
5, to improve the engine combustion efficiency.
6, smooth operation, no noise.
4 hydrogen-powered vehicles
Hydrogen-powered vehicles is a truly zero-emission vehicles, emissions are pure water, which has no pollution, zero emissions, abundant reserves and other advantages, therefore, hydrogen-powered vehicles is the ideal alternative to traditional cars. Compared with traditional power cars, hydrogen-powered cars cost at least 20% higher. China Changan Automobile in 2007 completed China's first high-efficiency zero-emission hydrogen internal combustion engine ignition, and in 2008 Beijing auto show on the self-developed China's first hydrogen-powered concept car "hydrogen."
With the "car society" gradually formed, car ownership is constantly showing an upward trend, while oil and other resources are stretched, on the other hand, swallow a lot of gasoline vehicles continue to discharge harmful gases and pollutants. The final solution is certainly not to limit the development of the automobile industry, but open alternative to oil, new energy, fuel cell vehicle four fast and quietly rolled over the road, rut print the name of new energy - hydrogen.
Almost all the world's auto giants are developing new energy vehicles. Electricity was once considered the future power of the car, but the long battery charging time and weight makes it gradually dull it. The current (referring to 2009) of the hybrid electric and gasoline can only temporarily alleviate the energy crisis, can only reduce but can not get rid of dependence on oil. This time, the emergence of hydrogen-powered fuel cells, like a new Noah's ark, so that people see the infinite hope from the crisis.
The idea of using hydrogen as a fuel for cars is a frightening one when it comes out, but in fact it is justified. Hydrogen has a high energy density, the release of energy enough to make the car engine operation, and hydrogen and oxygen in the fuel cell in the chemical reaction only generates water, no pollution. Therefore, many scientists predict that hydrogen as fuel cell energy is the core technology of the 21st century car, its revolutionary significance to the automotive industry, the equivalent of the microprocessor on the computer industry as important
Advantages: Emissions are pure water, running without any pollutants.
Disadvantages: Hydrogen fuel cell costs are too high, and hydrogen fuel storage and transportation in accordance with the current technical conditions is very difficult because the hydrogen molecules is very small, easy to escape through the storage device shell. In addition, the most deadly problem is that the extraction of hydrogen by electrolysis of water or the use of natural gas, this way also need to consume large amounts of energy, unless the use of nuclear power to extract, or can not fundamentally reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
5 gas vehicles
Gas vehicles are vehicles that use compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuels. In recent years, governments around the world are actively seeking to solve this problem, began to adjust the car fuel structure. Because of its good emission performance, the fuel gas vehicle can be regarded as the most ideal substitute fuel vehicle in the world because of its low fuel cost, mature technology and safe and reliable structure.
At present, the gas is still the world's mainstream alternative fuel, in China's alternative fuel vehicles accounted for about 90%. The US goal is that by 2010, 7% of the bus sector will use natural gas, 50% of taxis and buses will be converted to dedicated natural gas vehicles; by 2010, the number of German natural gas vehicles will reach 100,000 to 400,000 , The filling station will be increased from the current 180 to at least 300 seats.
Industry experts point out that the role of alternative fuels is to reduce and eventually eliminate the pressure caused by oil supply and economic development of the negative impact. Recently, China will continue to use compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, ethanol gasoline as an alternative fuel vehicle. Whether alternative fuels can be used depends on the resources, distribution, availability of alternative fuels, the maturity of alternative fuel production and application technologies, and the reduction of environmental pollution. The scale of production, investment, production costs and prices of alternative fuels Determine its competitiveness with petroleum fuels; automobile production structure and design improvements must be compatible with the fuel.
Replacing fuel with gas will be the inevitable trend of automobile development in China and the world. China should organize forces as soon as possible to develop a national gas vehicle policy. Taking into account China's energy security is mainly the status of oil, including the development of gas vehicles, including a variety of alternative fuel vehicles, is an urgent matter, according to national conditions should do:
First, to limit gas prices, oil, gas prices to maintain a reasonable price difference between, such as Sichuan Province, Chongqing City, oil, gas price difference, you can ensure the appropriate development of gas vehicles;
Second, in view of the filling station investment, long payback period, the Government appropriate to give a certain subsidy, gas stations sold gas prices and car users for gas savings between fuel costs, adjust the distribution of benefits;
Third, the income tax on gas stations, should refer to the high-tech industrial development zone policy, to take two by three tax policy;
Fourth, the gas station electricity in accordance with the special treatment of industrial electricity, electricity price favorably; In addition, the site of the filling station, according to major projects and environmental protection industry, special things, do not shirk, buck, actively using foreign advanced Establish the station standard, scientifically determine the fire safety distance, saving land resources.
6 bio-ethanol vehicle
Alcohol, commonly known as alcohol, popular to say, the use of ethanol as fuel vehicles, also known as alcohol vehicles. With ethanol instead of petroleum fuels has a long history of activities, both from the production and application of the technology are already very mature, recently due to tight oil resources, vehicle energy diversification tends to intensify, ethanol car also mentioned agenda.
At present the world has more than 40 countries, different levels of application of ethanol vehicles, and some have reached a large-scale promotion of the growing status of ethanol vehicles.
The use of ethanol in the car, you can increase the octane number of the fuel, increase the oxygen content, the car cylinder combustion more complete, you can reduce emissions of harmful emissions.
Ethanol Automotive fuel applications: First, blending, refers to the application of ethanol and gasoline blending. In the mixed fuel, ethanol and the volume ratio of "E", such as ethanol accounted for 10%, 15%, with E10, E15 said, at present, blending accounted for ethanol cars accounted for the main. Second, the pure burning, that is, a single burning ethanol, available E100% said that the current application is not much, is a pilot stage; Third, denatured fuel ethanol, ethanol dehydration, then add denaturant generated ethanol, which is part of the test application 4, flexible fuel, that can use gasoline fuel, but also can use ethanol or methanol and gasoline ratio of mixed fuel, you can also use hydrogen, and can be switched at any time. Such as Ford, Toyota are in the test flexible fuel vehicles (FFV)