In 2016, in the national policy and new energy vehicles to promote the application of the process to speed up the drive, driven by China's battery demand for a substantial increase. To the BYD, China Aviation Lithium, Guoxuan Hi-Tech, power God, CATL and other enterprises as the representative of the domestic power battery business, through the expansion of investment, independent innovation, production capacity and product quality have been significantly improved, but the comprehensive competitiveness still need to be enhanced The With more and more international power battery companies began to invest in China to build factories, local power battery companies will face greater competition pressure, therefore, the domestic car battery manufacturers to technology research and development and industrialization progress on more efforts.
Introduction to common power batteries
At present in the vehicle power source, there are four main technical routes: lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen fuel cells, super capacitors and aluminum air batteries. Which lithium-ion battery, super capacitor and hydrogen fuel cell has been widely used, and aluminum air battery is still in the laboratory research stage. Energy supply, lithium-ion battery, super capacitor for pure electric vehicles, but the need for external charging, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles need external hydrogen filling, aluminum air batteries need to add aluminum and electrolyte. For now, lithium-ion battery in the future for a long period of time or to occupy the main development of space.
Lithium batteries are also their own way
In terms of power batteries, at present, ternary lithium batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries and lithium titanate batteries in the field of electric vehicles have applications.
As the three yuan lithium battery capacity density, life is relatively long mileage, domestic car prices have turned to the use of three yuan lithium battery, including Beiqi, BYD, JAC and so on. But the three yuan lithium battery is poor security, poor high temperature resistance, poor life and other shortcomings, 2016 early, was also the Ministry of Industry stopped, suspended three yuan lithium battery bus included in the new energy vehicles to promote the use of recommended models directory.
Compared to the three yuan battery, lithium iron phosphate battery, due to safety performance, high temperature performance, light weight and other advantages, more and more active in the electric bus market. But because of its low temperature performance, the cathode material tap density and other defects, in the micro-battery does not have advantages.
There is also a battery, due to Gree Dong Mingzhu Zhuhai Yinlong appreciation and support, making the lithium titanate battery into the public view.
Lithium titanate batteries are also lithium batteries in the longest life, the highest safety of the battery. On the life cycle, ordinary lithium-ion battery is about 1,000 to 2,000 cycles, lithium titanate is 30,000 cycles, is the former 15 times. But the material of the battery has a natural shortcomings, low energy density, and the past few years the country's policy support are linked with the mileage, high-energy density of the battery more favored by the policy. According to the latest subsidy policy will be signed for the fast-charge battery has an independent requirement, therefore, industry experts speculate that the future lithium titanate battery will usher in the development of the spring. Zhuhai Yinlong has mastered the world's top core lithium titanate technology, to overcome the industry recognized the "five issues" to achieve 6 minutes fast charge, resistance to wide temperature, 30 years of recycling life, do not fire and other excellent features. And Yin Long is currently studying through the combination of lithium titanate batteries and fuel cells to solve the new energy vehicle mileage problems.
Development Status of Foreign Power Battery Industry
At present, Japan in the field of lithium-ion battery technology leader, has been developed to 2030 development plan, the system to arrange research and development topics to maintain long-term leadership, Panasonic, NEC, Sony and other famous companies have built large-scale lithium-ion battery production line. South Korea's LG Chemical supply of lithium batteries has driven more than 300,000 electric vehicles on the road, Samsung SDI has become the world's leading power battery suppliers, providing batteries to BMW, Fiat, Ferrari and so on.
A few years ago, the Obama administration passed an economic stimulus package that would allocate $ 2 billion to support the development of the US automotive lithium-ion battery industry. Tesla and Panasonic jointly built a $ 2 billion super lithium-ion battery plant in Nevada The
The United States has developed a power battery research and development routes, including the metal lithium, silicon alloy and other materials as negative, high voltage materials, air, sulfur as a positive new structure of the battery, and non-lithium system power batteries. With the rapid development of China's new energy automotive industry, more and more foreign power battery enterprises in China to invest and build factories. Samsung SDI, LG Chemical has been in China, Xi'an and Nanjing, a joint venture plant production, Panasonic Dalian plant is under construction, Bosch and SK also plans to build power battery factory in China.
Development Status of Domestic Power Battery Industry
China's lithium-ion battery research project has been the "863" key projects, after more than 20 years of sustained support, most of the material to achieve the localization, from the chase period to the simultaneous development of the transition period, the total local capacity in the world , Supporting the demonstration of China's new energy vehicles to promote.
(1) The positive electrode adopts lithium iron phosphate material, the negative electrode adopts graphite material, developed 50Ah energy type battery, energy density reaches 136.6Wh / kg, power density reaches 1101W / kg; developed 20Ah energy and power type battery, energy density reaches 106.5 H / kg, power density of 1119W / kg.
(2) cathode using spinel lithium manganese oxide, nickel cobalt manganese ternary mixed material, the anode using artificial graphite materials, research and development of 25Ah flexible packaging energy battery, energy density of 162Wh / kg; developed 35Ah energy and power of both batteries, Energy density of 135Wh / kg.
(3) The cathode is made of nickel-cobalt-manganese ternary material. The negative electrode adopts natural graphite / artificial graphite / mesocarbon microspheres and other materials. The 10, 15, 20, 28, 30, 45Ah power battery developed has an energy density of 180Wh / Kg; developed 2.6Ah18650 cylindrical battery, the energy density of 200Wh / kg.
In the system integration technology and capacity to make greater progress and breakthrough. The energy density of the power battery system using lithium iron phosphate material reaches 90Wh / kg, and the energy density of the power battery system with ternary material (18650 cylindrical power battery) reaches 110Wh / kg.
In the forward-looking technical research, the Chinese Academy of Sciences pilot program to support the research institute developed energy density of more than 300Wh / kg of lithium-ion battery samples and energy density of more than 500Wh / kg lithium-sulfur battery samples, but the cycle life and safety performance indicators Need to further enhance.
At present, China has formed a complete lithium-ion battery industry chain including key raw materials (positive, negative, diaphragm, electrolyte, etc.), power battery, system integration, demonstration application, recycling, production equipment, basic research and development System, master the power battery formula design, structural design and manufacturing process technology, the production line from the semi-automatic pilot to fully automated large-scale manufacturing technology transition.
In the industrial layout, China has formed the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, the Central Plains region and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region consisting mainly of four power battery industry gathering area. According to statistics, there are nearly 100 power battery enterprises to carry out research and development of power battery and industrial work, nearly 100 billion yuan of industrial capital investment, the formation of nearly 40GWh annual production capacity, technology research and development, industrialization progress significantly, effectively support the new energy The rapid development of automobile industry. Future development trend of vehicle power battery
2020, the technology upgrade phase. The new lithium-ion battery to achieve industrialization, energy-based lithium-ion battery single specific energy to 350Wh / kg, energy and power of both power battery than the energy of 200Wh / kg. Power battery to achieve intelligent manufacturing, product performance, greatly enhance the quality, cost significantly reduced, pure electric vehicle economy and the traditional gasoline car is basically the same, plug-in hybrid car into the popular application stage.
2025, the stage of industrial development. New power battery technology has made significant progress. Power battery industry development and international advanced level, the formation of 2 to 3 with strong international competitiveness of large-scale power battery company, the international market share of 30%. Solid-state batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, metal air batteries and other new systems continue to make a breakthrough in battery technology, energy than 400Wh / kg.
2030, the industry mature stage. The new system to achieve practical battery, the battery than the energy of 500Wh / kg or more, the cost of further decline; power battery technology and industrial development in the international leading level.
The future for a considerable period of time, China's energy-saving and new energy vehicles will be popular in the application of plug-in hybrid cars, pure electric enterprises and other new energy vehicles as the main task, eager to expect power batteries to reduce costs and improve performance. Research and development of new lithium-ion battery and the new system of batteries to enhance the level of intelligent manufacturing power battery, improve the verification test methods and standard system, both China's energy and new energy vehicles development needs, but also the development of China's power battery key tasks, with urgency.