In early July 2017, a "sodium battery company Aquion Energy bankruptcy are lithium batteries to blame? "The article, the sodium ion battery pushed to the people in the field of vision. It is not difficult to find that nearly half a year to the development of sodium ion battery into the intensive period, although not yet into the commercialization, but the sodium battery will undoubtedly become the lithium battery under the "rising star."
Sodium ion battery: lithium battery flourishing under the "rising star"
At present, the battery is mainly used in electric vehicles, energy storage and consumer electronics and other fields, especially in recent years, the rapid development of electric vehicles and energy storage industry, batteries, especially lithium-ion battery demand is growing, lithium-ion battery gradually exposed Some of its limitations: First, the problem of insufficient lithium resources; Second, the problem of resource recycling. The emergence of these real problems, forcing enterprises, the industry to choose a richer reserves, materials, cheaper battery system. In the constant search, sodium ion battery system is increasingly concerned about the industry.
"The price of lithium is more expensive, mineral resources are limited, and there are only a few lithium mines in the world, but sodium does not exist," said Kyeongjae Cho, a professor of materials science and technology at the University of Texas at Dallas at the University of Texas at Dallas. Mineral deficiencies can be extracted from seawater.
South China University of Technology School of Environment and Energy Associate Professor Xiong Xunhui said, sodium ion battery working principle and lithium-ion battery is similar to the use of ions in the positive and negative between the embedded process to achieve charge and discharge. But the former is rich in sodium resources and lower cost, and because of its high voltage platform, higher security.
Finding the right electrode material has always been the key to the development of sodium ion batteries.
Recently, sodium ion battery anode material breakthrough. Xiong Xunhui and Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Materials Science and Engineering Professor Liu Meilin, etc. through continuous research and development through the commercial antimony sulfide and graphene and sodium solution after mixing, and then by controlling the crystallization and sintering preparation of modified graphene and nano-antimony sulfide Of the composite material. The half-cell assembled from the material and the sodium sheet was maintained at a rate of 83% after 900 cycles of rapid charge and discharge (about 40 minutes of charge and discharge).
It is understood that the composite material has a good cycle performance, so that the application of sodium batteries to achieve a big step forward.
In addition to the anode material, the cathode material is also an important battlefield for sodium ion batteries.
Recently, under the auspices of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the researcher of the research group of the State Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructures and Nanotechnology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guo Yuguo, researchers, through the theory of material dynamics, Single metal ion cathode, combined with a variety of metal ion advantages, access to excellent overall performance of O3-NaFe0.45Co0.5Mg0.05O2 cathode material.
It is understood that the method significantly improved the material exposed to the air even soaked in water in the structural stability and capacity retention capacity, reducing the cost of storage materials, and promote its practical application for the future design of high-performance sodium ion battery cathode materials and Material structure optimization provides guidance.
Positive and negative materials continue to come good news, then the future of the target battery market, where the sodium?
Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Physics researcher Hu Yongsheng said that the future of sodium batteries can gradually replace the lead-acid batteries, low-speed electric vehicles in various types of widely used, and lithium-ion battery to form a complementary.
At present, China's vast majority of electric bicycles, electric tricycles and even older scooters using lead-acid batteries, but because of lead-acid battery recycling channels, systems and other imperfect, environmental pollution is more serious. Although lithium batteries can replace lead-acid batteries, but the reserves of lithium resources, sodium batteries lower cost so that Hu Yongsheng sodium ion battery target market aimed at low-speed electric vehicle market. He also said that the future of sodium batteries in the energy storage will also shine.
With the development and research of sodium ion batteries, many companies began to layout sodium batteries and sodium salt energy storage, ultra-Wei Group is one of them.
At the beginning of 2017, Chaowei Group and the United States General Electric Company (General Electric Company, referred to as "GE") held in Zhejiang Changxing Durathon sodium salt battery joint venture project signing ceremony. The two sides combine their respective industries and technological advantages to jointly create joint ventures and expand the application areas of sodium salt batteries. After years of research and development, Durathon sodium salt battery technology to achieve the commercial, it has a stable product, high security (not burning or explosion), energy density, long life characteristics. At present, GE has been in 25 countries around the world, built a solar, wind power portfolio, peak management, communications base stations and other energy storage projects.
In addition to ultra-Granville Group, the battery in the battery research center as early as 2015, the world's first release of sodium ion battery energy storage system prototype. For the domestic energy storage type sodium ion battery industrialization laid the foundation.
Although the sodium ion battery from the mass production will take time, but a number of enterprises and research units are in continuous development. At the same time sodium ion battery applications are also facing a problem, although the cost is low, but the energy density of sodium than lithium 20% lower. If you do not have a breakthrough in this area, its application will also be limited.